The correct answer is option 4, V.D. Savarkar. V.D. Savarkar, also known as Vinayak Damodar Savarkar, was an Indian independence activist and a prominent figure in the Indian nationalist movement. He played a significant role in shaping the concept of Hindutva, a Hindu nationalist ideology.
V.D. Savarkar described the uprising of 1857 as the First Indian War of Independence. He believed that the rebellion had the aim of overthrowing British rule in India and establishing an independent nation. He argued that the revolt had a broader nationalistic character, rather than being limited to specific grievances or localized revolts.
It is important to note that not all historians and scholars agree with this perspective. Some argue that the uprising of 1857 was not a war of independence in the traditional sense, as it did not have a unified goal of establishing an independent Indian state. Instead, they view it as a combination of various local, regional, and individual revolts against British colonial rule.
Overall, while V.D. Savarkar described the uprising of 1857 as the First Indian War of Independence, it is a contested perspective among historians and scholars.