The correct answer is option 2: Ruskin-Tolstoy-Thoreau.
Mahatma Gandhi`s doctrines of "non-violence" and "civil disobedience" were heavily influenced by the works of John Ruskin, Leo Tolstoy, and Henry David Thoreau.
John Ruskin was an English writer and social critic who advocated for the importance of social justice and the moral significance of work. His ideas of self-sufficiency, simplicity, and the need for a just and equitable society deeply impacted Gandhi`s philosophy.
Leo Tolstoy, a Russian writer, was another significant influence on Gandhi. Tolstoy`s ideas of passive resistance and his rejection of violence as a means of achieving one`s goals resonated with Gandhi`s own beliefs.
Lastly, Henry David Thoreau, an American philosopher and writer, is best known for his essay "Civil Disobedience." Thoreau`s ideas of non-violent resistance to unjust laws deeply influenced Gandhi`s approach to civil disobedience and his belief in peaceful means of protest.
Together, the works of Ruskin, Tolstoy, and Thoreau shaped Gandhi`s principles of non-violence and civil disobedience and played a vital role in his fight for India`s